How is Thermal Insulation fitted?

İçerik 05.02.2015
Thermal insulation is applied to buildings' roofs, walls facing outwards or unused places such as garages or storage, headlinings separating apartments from the ground or locations where no one lives, installation tubes and ventilation ducts. Moreover, heat losses and gains through windows are reduced by using coated glass and insulated linings and energy is saved. To properly benefit from the thermal insulation, all walls and linings facing cold locations in winter and hot locations in summer and roofs of buildings should be insulated and quality windows should be used.

Thermal insulation is applied by fixing the special insulation materials, which reduce the heat transfer on surfaces facing outwards or unused locations of the building from the foundation to the roof.

For applying insulation to roofs, insulation applications which vary depending on the shape of roofs are available. Insulation is applied with different kinds of insulation materials shaped like plates or blankets for roofs. For buildings where unused spaces exist between roofage and headlining, thermal insulation is applied by being laid on the headlining. In buildings where the attic is used as living space, thermal insulation is applied at roof level. For wood-constructed roofs, thermal insulation can be applied between, under or on rafters. For reinforced concrete hipped roofs, thermal insulation is applied on the concrete surface. In terrace roofs, thermal insulation can be applied on or under the waterproofing layer. The detail where thermal insulation plates are located on the waterproofing is called "inverted terrace roof" and it is called "traditional terrace roof" when the waterproofing layer is located on thermal insulation plates. In details of inverted terrace roof, waterproofing covers act as vapor barrier. For roofs, details of thermal insulation and waterproofing should be analyzed together and for ensuring a comfortable environment, inter-compatible materials should be selected and condensation verification should be carried out.

Figure 2.2: Application Examples

Insulation is applied to walls generally by mounting several materials to walls. Insulation can be applied outside or inside the building or between the walls. For insulation applications applied outside the building, since thermal insulation materials can be fixed on whole surface, thermal bridges will not occur. At the same time, since the insulation is applied outside of the building, walls remain warm and condensation does not occur. Thermal insulation plates which will be used on exterior surfaces should be produced especially for this application.

Thermal insulation applications between two walls or inside the building are preferred in buildings such as summer houses and mountain shelters which are used for short-term periods. In general, thermal insulation plates are applied on the interior surface of the wall in these applications. For these applications, necessary measures should be taken for thermal bridges and condensation verification should be carried out. According to the result of the condensation verification, it should be decided whether to use vapor barrier or not.

Figure 2.3: Application Examples

A good thermal insulation in windows can be ensured with quality, sealed, properly applied woodworks and insulation glass units with low thermal transmission values. Doors in buildings should also be selected considering the energy efficiency.

Another important factor in the thermal insulation is the insulation of installations and equipment (valves, fittings etc.). When thermal insulation is applied to cooling and heating installations a huge energy saving is made and operating cost decreases. Therefore, accidents due to the high surface temperature in vapor and hot water installations are prevented. Moreover, thermal bridges and system damages due to overheating of the boiler room are prevented.

Thermal insulation should not just be considered as an application made by various insulation materials. Thermal insulation is a procedure which should be considered at the design stage. One of the most important factors affecting the heat loss is environmental factors that the building encounters and designers should consider these factors in terms of the thermal insulation. External factors affecting the thermal insulation are as follows:

  • Geographical features: Latitude-longitude, inclined or plane, green or arid building region.
  • Climate characteristics.
  • Altitude.
  • Land characteristics: Direction and zoning status of the land with neighboring parcels
  • Directions where places will face: Living places which do not face north. South-facing living room and east-facing bedroom, etc.

For an effective thermal insulation, these factors should be considered at the design stage and the building should be designed as to show maximum resistance to these external factors.
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