Thermal Insulation in Turkey

İçerik 05.02.2015
Energy requirements in our country, as in the world, increase day by day because of both population growth and progress in the industry. While our primary energy consumption was at the level of approximately 53 million TEP in 1990; in such a short time, after 10 years, our total energy consumption has increased by 54% and reached the level of 83 million TEP. Energy resources of our country cannot meet the increasing energy requirements.
 
  • Energy Consumption (MTEP)
  • Figure 6.6: Change of Primary Energy Consumption by Years
  • Years


While the energy requirements in Turkey are increasing day by day within the industrialization and growing process, the energy production cannot be increase in parallel with this increase. Between 1990 and 2000, while Turkey's energy consumption increased by 57%, energy production increased only by 9.4%. While Turkey met 49% of its energy requirements in 1990 and 43% of its energy requirements in 1995 with its own resources, this rate reduced to 34% by 2000. If necessary precautions are not taken, according to the calculations in 2000, it was predicted that Turkey can only meet 25% of its energy requirements by its own resources in near future. These rates are shown in graph 2. As per the estimations, oil import which was 29 million tonnes in 1999 will increase to 74 million tonnes and natural gas import which was 12 billion m3 will increase to 78.5 billion m3 in 2020.

  • Production/Consumption (%)
  • Figure 6.7: Production-Consumption Rates by Years
  • Years
 
Population growth and development of technology, which requires energy, contribute to the increase in energy requirements. Considering the energy consumption in our country, it can be seen that "Residential" industry plays an important role in this regard. When the Final Energy consumption between 1970 and 1998 is reviewed as to the industries, energy used in Residences and Industry is 70-75% of the total energy consumption in average. Therefore, energy efficiency should be prioritized in the aforementioned industries and necessary arrangements should be made and put into practice.

  • Other 28%
  • Building 33%
  • Industry 39%
  • Data obtained in 2001
  • Figure 6.8: Energy Consumption by Industries
 
80% of the energy consumed in residences is used for heating purposes. Cooling requirements in our country where four seasons can be experienced are increasing day by day as well as the heating. Since the amount of the energy saved or lost in residences determines the amount of the energy consumed due to the heating or cooling purposes; for saving the energy, heat loss/gain in the location we live should be reduced. Considering land costs and usage areas, the economic conditions we confront necessitate designs which occupy as small space as possible and which have minimal heat loss and gain for the structural elements. Limiting the thermal energy which is transferred through the structural elements is possible with the thermal insulation and use of insulated linings and windows in the building envelope. Calculations showed that with an efficient thermal insulation, energy can be saved by 50% in buildings on average. Thus, we can say that if thermal insulation is applied to buildings with suitable materials and design it is possible to save huge amounts of energy. Inefficient use of energy leads to environmental pollution and affects the natural life in a negative way.

  • Hydraulic energy 11%
  • Coal 21%
  • Oil 43%
  • Natural Gas 25%
  • Energy Needs
  • Figure 6.8: Change of Production-Consumption by Years - Energy Used
  • Years
  
In Turkey, energy which is used in a similar way as the other regions of the world is achieved mostly from the fossil fuel resources. According to the data acquired in 2003, considering the total energy consumption in our country, oil takes the lead with a share of 43%. Coil and natural gas which are included in other fossil energy resources have a share of 46% within the total consumption. In spite of this, hydraulic energy which is one of the renewable energy resources has a share of 11%. It is foreseen that saving made with the thermal insulation in buildings will reduce the carbondioxide emission from buildings to half. This will be the contribution of Turkey to a cleaner environment. While the amount of carbondioxide emitted to the atmosphere was 18 million tones in 1980, this amount raised to 55 million tones by an increase of 305 percent in 2000.
Energy saving made by insulation will comfort the home economics and prevent large amounts of foreign currency outflow from the countries which meet their energy requirements by external sources. This situation will also reduce the dependencies of countries to energy resources which are strategic products as we mentioned before and provide strategic benefits to countries. In economic regards, when the energy balance of Turkey regarding residences is examined, it can be seen that large amounts of energy is used inefficiently. 20.4 million TEP of energy was consumed in order to heat residences in 2000. For heating residences, financial resources worth $ 3.5 billion were used. Today, it is estimated that the cost of energy required to heat residences is over $ 6 billion. Foreign currency spent on energy imports creates pressure on Turkey's balance of payments. Saving which will be made thanks to the thermal insulation seems to be the best way for a short term to reduce this pressure. As a result of calculations, it was seen that if the whole building stock is insulated according to the current standards, energy saving will be $ 3 billion per year in terms of cash. If it is considered that spending on the thermal insulation will pay for itself between 2 and 5 years, when analyzed both for environmental and financial regards, it can be seen that our energy requirements should be controlled and therefore, our buildings should be thermally insulated.